Linux中如何获取目录的大小

我们都知道,在 Linux 中使用 ls 命令 列出的目录内容中,目录的大小仅显示 4KB。这个大小正确吗?如果不正确,那它代表什么,又该如何获取 Linux 中的目录或文件夹大小?这是一个默认的大小,是用来存储磁盘上存储目录的元数据的大小。

Linux 上有一些应用程序可以 获取目录的实际大小。其中,磁盘使用率(du)命令已被 Linux 管理员广泛使用。

du 命令 表示 磁盘使用率Disk Usage。这是一个标准的 Unix 程序,用于估计当前工作目录中的文件空间使用情况。

它使用递归方式总结磁盘使用情况,以获取目录及其子目录的大小。

如同我说的那样, 使用 ls 命令时,目录大小仅显示 4KB。参见下面的输出。

$ ls -lh | grep ^d
drwxr-xr-x  3 daygeek daygeek 4.0K Aug  2 13:57 Bank_Details
drwxr-xr-x  2 daygeek daygeek 4.0K Mar 15  2019 daygeek
drwxr-xr-x  6 daygeek daygeek 4.0K Feb 16  2019 drive-2daygeek
drwxr-xr-x 13 daygeek daygeek 4.0K Jan  6  2019 drive-mageshm
drwxr-xr-x 15 daygeek daygeek 4.0K Sep 29 21:32 Thanu_Photos


1. 在 Linux 上如何只获取父目录的大小

使用以下 du 命令格式获取给定目录的总大小。在该示例中,我们将得到 /home/daygeek/Documents 目录的总大小。

$ du -hs /home/daygeek/Documents

$ du -h –max-depth=0 /home/daygeek/Documents/

20G    /home/daygeek/Documents

详细说明:

1) du – 这是一个命令

2) -h – 以易读的格式显示大小 (例如 1K 234M 2G)

3) -s – 仅显示每个参数的总数

4) –max-depth=N – 目录的打印深度

2. 在 Linux 上如何获取每个目录的大小

使用以下 du 命令格式获取每个目录(包括子目录)的总大小。

在该示例中,我们将获得每个 /home/daygeek/Documents 目录及其子目录的总大小。

$ du -h /home/daygeek/Documents/ | sort -rh | head -20
20G    /home/daygeek/Documents/
9.6G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek
6.3G    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos
5.3G    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos/Camera
5.3G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-videos
3.2G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-mageshm
2.3G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-Photos
2.2G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month
916M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-mageshm/Tanisha
454M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-mageshm/2g-backup
415M    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos/WhatsApp Video
300M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/Jan-2017
288M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/Oct-2017
226M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/Sep-2017
219M    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos/WhatsApp Documents
213M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-mageshm/photos
163M    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos/WhatsApp Video/Sent
161M    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos/WhatsApp Images
154M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/June-2017
150M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/Nov-2016


3. 在 Linux 上如何获取每个目录的摘要

使用如下 du 命令格式仅获取每个目录的摘要。

$ du -hs /home/daygeek/Documents/* | sort -rh | head -10
9.6G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek
6.3G    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos
3.2G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-mageshm
756K    /home/daygeek/Documents/Bank_Details
272K    /home/daygeek/Documents/user-friendly-zorin-os-15-has-been-released-TouchInterface1.png
172K    /home/daygeek/Documents/user-friendly-zorin-os-15-has-been-released-NightLight.png
164K    /home/daygeek/Documents/ConfigServer Security and Firewall (csf) Cheat Sheet.pdf
132K    /home/daygeek/Documents/user-friendly-zorin-os-15-has-been-released-Todo.png
112K    /home/daygeek/Documents/user-friendly-zorin-os-15-has-been-released-ZorinAutoTheme.png
96K    /home/daygeek/Documents/distro-info.xlsx


4. 在 Linux 上如何获取每个目录的不含子目录的大小

使用如下 du 命令格式来展示每个目录的总大小,不包括子目录。

$ du -hS /home/daygeek/Documents/ | sort -rh | head -20
5.3G    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos/Camera
5.3G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-videos
2.3G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-Photos
1.5G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-mageshm
831M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-mageshm/Tanisha
454M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-mageshm/2g-backup
300M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/Jan-2017
288M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/Oct-2017
253M    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos/WhatsApp Video
226M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/Sep-2017
219M    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos/WhatsApp Documents
213M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-mageshm/photos
163M    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos/WhatsApp Video/Sent
154M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/June-2017
150M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/Nov-2016
127M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/Dec-2016
100M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/Oct-2016
94M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/Nov-2017
92M    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos/WhatsApp Images
90M    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek/Thanu-photos-by-month/Dec-2017


5. 在 Linux 上如何仅获取一级子目录的大小

如果要获取 Linux 上给定目录的一级子目录(包括其子目录)的大小,请使用以下命令格式。

$ du -h --max-depth=1 /home/daygeek/Documents/
3.2G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-mageshm
4.0K    /home/daygeek/Documents/daygeek
756K    /home/daygeek/Documents/Bank_Details
9.6G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek
6.3G    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos
20G    /home/daygeek/Documents/

6. 如何在 du 命令输出中获得总计

如果要在 du 命令输出中获得总计,请使用以下 du 命令格式。

$ du -hsc /home/daygeek/Documents/* | sort -rh | head -10
20G    total
9.6G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-2daygeek
6.3G    /home/daygeek/Documents/Thanu_Photos
3.2G    /home/daygeek/Documents/drive-mageshm
756K    /home/daygeek/Documents/Bank_Details
272K    /home/daygeek/Documents/user-friendly-zorin-os-15-has-been-released-TouchInterface1.png
172K    /home/daygeek/Documents/user-friendly-zorin-os-15-has-been-released-NightLight.png
164K    /home/daygeek/Documents/ConfigServer Security and Firewall (csf) Cheat Sheet.pdf
132K    /home/daygeek/Documents/user-friendly-zorin-os-15-has-been-released-Todo.png
112K    /home/daygeek/Documents/user-friendly-zorin-os-15-has-been-released-ZorinAutoTheme.png